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Archive for the ‘Bodhisattva’ Category

From Wikipedia,

Guanyin (Chinese: 觀音; pinyin: Guānyīn; Wade–Giles: kuan-yin, Japanese: Kannon, Korean: Gwan-eum, Vietnamese: Quan Âm) is the bodhisattva associated with compassion as venerated by East Asian Buddhists, usually as a female. The name Guanyin is short for Guanshiyin (觀世音, pinyin: Guānshìyīn, Wade-Giles: kuan-shih yin) which means “Observing the Sounds (or Cries) of the World“.

It is generally accepted (in the Chinese community) that Guanyin originated as the Sanskrit Avalokiteśvara (अवलोकितेश्वर), which is her male form. Commonly known in English as the Goddess of Mercy[1], Guanyin is also revered by Chinese Daoists (Taoists) as an Immortal. However, in Daoist mythology, Guanyin has other origination stories which are not directly related to Avalokiteśvara.

Origin

Guanyin’s origin is debated among scholars. The root of this debate lies in the history of religion in China. China’s indigenous religion is Daoism. It is possible that Guanshi’yin originated as a Daoist deity, the Queen Mother of the West. With the introduction of Mahayana Buddhism to China in around the 4th to 5th centuries, Daoism and Buddhism became religious rivals in China. The Buddhist tactic was to change, and even supplant, indigenous Daoist deities in favor of Buddhist deities. Over the centuries, this trend has had the effect that it is now virtually impossible to determine Guanshi’yin’s true origin. The official Buddhist view is that Guanyin originated with the male Avalokiteśvara, though Guanyin’s origin may be more complex than this simple, linear derivation. While it is certain that the name “Guanshi’yin” is derived from the name “Avalokiteśvara”, the image of the Chinese/Korean/Japanese/Vietnamese Bodhisattva (along with her femininity) may be at least partly derived from other sources.

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后印何朝宗胡卢四方款

达摩在中国始传禅宗,“直指人心,见性成佛,不立文字,教外别传”。语言和文字只是描述万事万物的代号而已。只要明心见性,了解自己的心性,就可以成佛。

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From Wikipedia,

Cakrasaṃvara, Chinese: 胜乐金刚 shènglè jīngāng; Tibetan: Korlo Demchog (Tibetan: འཁོར་ལོ་སྡོམ་པ / བདེ་མཆོག; Wylie: khor lo sdom pa / bde mchog) is a heruka (and known simply as Heruka to Gelugpa Buddhists) and one of the principal iṣṭha-devatā, or meditational deities of the Sarma schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The Cakrasaṃvara sadhana is considered to be of the mother class of the Anuttara Yoga Tantra. Cakrasaṃvara is typically depicted with a blue-coloured body, four faces, and twelve arms, and embracing his consort Vajravarahi (in Chinese 金刚亥母 jīngāng hàimǔ)in the yab-yum position. Other forms of the deity are also known, with varying numbers of limbs. Cakrasaṃvara and consort are not to be thought of as two different entities, as an ordinary husband and wife are two different people; in reality, their divine embrace is a metaphor for the union of great bliss and emptiness, which are one and the same essence.

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From Wikipedia,

Vajrasattva (Tibetan: Dorje Sempa, Japanese: Kongōsatta, Chinese: 金剛薩埵 Jīn gāng sà duǒ) is a bodhisattva in the Mahayana and Vajrayana buddhist traditions. Vajrasattva’s name translates to Diamond Mind. In the Japanese Vajrayana school of Buddhism, Shingon, Vajrasattva is the esoteric aspect of the bodhisattva Samantabhadra and is commonly associated with the student practitioner who through the master’s teachings, attains higher and higher levels of esoteric practice.

Vajrasattva appears principally in two Buddhists texts: the Mahavairocana Sutra and the Vajrasekhara Sutra. In the Diamond Realm Mandala, Vajrasattva sits to the East near Akshobhya Buddha.

In some esoteric lineages, Nagarjuna was said to have met Vajrasattva in an iron tower in South India, and was taught tantra, thus transmitting the esoteric teachings to more historical figures.[1]

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White Manjusri

Orange Manjusri

From Wikipedia,

Manjusri (Ch: 文殊 Wénshū or 文殊師利菩薩 Wénshūshili Púsà; Jp: Monju; Tib: Jampelyang; Nepalese: मंजुश्री Manjushree) is a bodhisattva (emanating enlightened being) in the Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions of Buddhism. Manjusri is the bodhisattva associated with wisdom, doctrine and awareness and in Vajrayana Buddhism is the meditational deity (yidam), who embodies enlightened wisdom. Historically, the Mahayana Buddhist scriptures assert that Manjusri was a disciple of Gautama Buddha, although he has no mention in Pali scriptures.

The Sanskrit term Mañjuśrī can be translated as “Gentle Glory”[1]. Mañjuśrī is also known by the fuller Sanskrit name of Mañjuśrī-kumāra-bhūta.[2]

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From Wikipedia,

Avalokiteśvara (Sanskrit: अवलोकितेश्वर , Bengali: অবলোকিতেশ্বর, lit. “Lord who looks down”, Chinese: 觀世音) is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas. He is one of the more widely revered bodhisattvas in mainstream Mahayana Buddhism. In China and its sphere of cultural influence, Avalokiteśvara is often depicted in a female form known as Guan Yin. (However, in Taoist mythology, Guan Yin has other origination stories which are unrelated to Avalokiteśvara.)

Avalokitesvara is also referred to as Padmapāni (“Holder of the Lotus”) also Thirumai (Tirupati) or Lokeśvara (“Lord of the World”). In Tibetan, Avalokiteśvara is known as Chenrezig, and is said to be incarnated in the Dalai Lama,[1] the Karmapa[2][3] and other high Lamas. In Mongolia, he is called Megjid Janraisig, Xongsim Bodisadv-a, or Nidüber Üjegči.

Etymology

The name Avalokiteśvara is made of the following parts: the verbal prefix ava, which means “down”; lokita, a past participle of the verb lok (“to notice, behold, observe”), here used in an active sense (an occasional irregularity of Sanskrit grammar); and finally īśvara, “lord”, “ruler”, “sovereign” or “master”. In accordance with the rules of sound combination, a+iśvara becomes eśvara. Combined, the parts mean “lord who gazes down (at the world)”. The word loka (“world”) is absent from the name, but the phrase is implied.[4]

It was initially thought that the Chinese mis-transliterated the word Avalokiteśvara as Avalokitasvara which explained why Xuanzang translated it as Guan Zizai instead of Guan Yin. However, according to recent research, the original form was indeed Avalokitasvara with the ending svara (“sound, noise”), which means “sound perceiver”, literally “he who has perceived sound” (the cries of sentient beings who need his help). This is the exact equivalent of the Chinese translation Guan Yin. This name was later supplanted by the form containing the ending -īśvara, which does not occur in Sanskrit before the seventh century. The original form Avalokitasvara already appears in Sanskrit fragments of the fifth century.[5]

The original meaning of the name fits the Buddhist understanding of the role of a bodhisattva. The reinterpretation presenting him as an īśvara shows a strong influence of Shaivism, as the term īśvara was usually connected to the Hindu notion of a creator god and ruler of the world. Attributes of such a god were transmitted to the bodhisattva, but the mainstream of the Avalokiteśvara worshippers upheld the Buddhist rejection of the doctrine of any creator god.[6]

An etymology of the Tibetan name Chenrezig is chen (eye), re (continuity) and zig (to look). This gives the meaning of one who always looks upon all beings (with the eye of compassion).[7]

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From Wikipedia,

Vajrapāṇi (from Sanskrit vajra, “thunderbolt” or “diamond” and pāṇi, lit. “in the hand”) is one of the earliest bodhisattvas of Mahayana Buddhism. He is the protector and guide of the Buddha, and rose to symbolize the Buddha’s power. Vajrapani was used extensively in Buddhist iconography as one of the three protective deities surrounding the Buddha. Each of them symbolizes one of the Buddha’s virtues: Manjusri (the manifestation of all the Buddhas’ wisdom), Avalokitesvara (the manifestation of all the Buddhas’ compassion) and Vajrapani (the manifestation of all the Buddhas’ power)

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